14 diciembre, 2014

3A passive

3A Passive
      a 2 have been stolen 3 are being forced 4 was being driven 5 were discovered, was stopped 6 be      taken 7 are caught  8 has been vandalized 9 had been left 10 Being burgled 11 to be sent.
      b 2 is understood to 3 is believed (that) 4 are reported to 5 is thought (that) 6 is expected (that)

10 Practice
1. It's believed that.. 2. It's known that ... 3. It's thought that .... 4. It's said that... 5.  It's believed that.. 6. It's  known that eating.... 

11. Your Turn
1. Norah Jones is thought to be... 2. Duck is considered to taste... 3. Germany is expected to win...
4. Spain is said to have...  5. Walking is thought to be...

08 diciembre, 2014

Cleft Sentences & Inversion

Cleft Sentences: Key  Structure:
It + be + information emphasized +relative clause
              (a noun phrase)                 (who, that)
Ex:    It   is   money  that people care about.

What + information emphasized + be + complements

Ex:    what I like is the way she smiles

6. a. what you need is a few days’ rest...
   b. It is money that people care about nowadays.
   c. what we need is someone to help us, not someone to...
   d. What I like (about him) is the way he always listens...
   e. It is his attitude towards other people that really ...
   f. What I don’t understand is why you had to...
   g. It wasn’t me who decided to take a short cut...
   h. What the world needs is love, peace and...
7. (suggested answers)
   b. ...the cultural variety.
   c. ...idleness... annoys me
   d. ...speaking.
   e. ...listening...
   f. ...education.
   g. ...my father ... be a hard worker.
   h. ...Leticia... she likes to be the queen.

Inversion with negative adverbials: Key  Structure:
Adverbial + auxiliary +subject + main verb.
Never before have I expereinced such kindness.

Negative adverbs include adverbs with an explicit negative meaning, such as never, not and nowhere, as well as adverbs with an implied negative meaning, such as hardly, scarcely and seldom.

5. a. No longer does our country need to rely on foreign ...
   b. Under no circunstances should you borrow money...
   c. Only now are we seeing the...
   d. Rarely has a change of government had such...
   e. Only then did he realised he had left...
   f. On no account should you reveal the details of your...
   g. Never before has this country witnessed such a serious...
   h. Seldom does a politician  admit publicly that he has...

   i. Not only did George have to pay a large fine but he also had   to ...

03 diciembre, 2014



A 1. If 2. in case 3. as  long as 4. in case 5. unless 6. when.
B 1. It's cold/ It snows 2. It rains / It's raining 3. It's open 4. You don't arrive late/after 12 5. You buy/want to buy some presents.


A 1. b 2. a 3.a 4. b 5. a 6.b 7.a 8. b

B.  1. If 2. in case 3. as long as 4. when 5. unless


A. 1 b 2 c 3 a 4 d
B 1. ...unless you want to see the sights.
    2. ...in case you get lost.
    3. ...although many people think they are too crowded.
    4. ...unless you want to spend a lot of money.
    5. ... as long as you arrive early to avoid the crowds.
    6. ...although you will find it very noisy.
    7. ... as long as you don't mind  a long journey.
    8. ... .in case you want to buy a lot of presents.


A 1. Despite 2. Due   3. Because  4. Although 5. Spite 6. However
B  1. e  2.d  3. c 4. g   5. a  6. h 7. f  8. b

LINKING WORDS 3       29

A    1 b  2 a  3 c
       4 c  5 a  6 b
       7 b  8 a  9 c
     10 b 11 c 12 a
B  1 we took the car due to the train strike
     2 despite  the fact I was hungry, I couldn't eat the snails
     3 although the weather was rough, the boat set sail
     4 the government resigned because the economy collapsed
5        they said the bridge wouldn’t last, but it is still standing.
6        Take my phone number in case you need it
C   .... I’m writing in case you ever decide to go to Ireland . Despite the bad weather, ....

...... Due to it being an island.... It’s a pity that because I didn’t have/of not having much free time

Conjunctions of purpose and reason

Look at these sentences and say if the conjunctions introduce an explanation of purpose (P) or reason(R).
·        I cut out these more subjective opinions so as to ( purpose) avoid actually telling our readers what to think.
·        Since (reason) space is limited I can’t always include the full photograph.

Do these conjunctions express purpose or reason?
Because (R)           in order to (P)            as(R)            since (R)    so as to  (P)                so that (P)

Choose three ways of completing this sentence.
a)      As, since, because it was Sunday, I slept in.

Choose two ways of completing this sentence.
b)     I stayed home In order to, so as to  complete my assignment.

Choose one way of completing this sentence.
c)      I stayed home so that I could complete my assignment.

We use conjunctions of purpose  to explain our objectives.
We use conjunctions of  reason when we want to justify our actions.

6.  2f  3h  4i  5a  6 c  7e  8b
7. 2 in order to 3 since 4 due to the fact that.